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i SA Hair and Beauty Work Health and Safety Guide 1 Acknowledgments Background The 2015 update of the SA Hair and Beauty Work Health and Safety Guide Safety with Style has been facilitated by Hair and Beauty SA. It has been funded by SafeWork SA through the SA Work Health and Safety Innovative Practice Grant Program. Both the Hair Co-op and Service Skills SA were engaged by Hair and Beauty SA to play a key role in the production. The first version of the Hair Beauty Safety Guide for the Hairdressing Nail and Beauty Industry was released in 2006 produced by Hair and Beauty SA and funded by the WorkCover Corporation Grants Scheme. In January 2013 the new Work Health and Safety WHS legislation took effect replacing the Occupational Health Safety and Welfare Act 1986 and the Occupational Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 2010. With the release of the Work Health and Safety Act 2012 SA Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 SA and supporting Codes of Practice came a need to produce an updated guide that reflected current legislation and industry practices. The new legislation provides greater consistency certainty and clarity across Australia making it easier to understand your workplace health and safety duties. For more information about the WHS legislation visit SafeWork SA www.safework.sa.gov.au go to the section entitled Work Heath and Safety Laws or call the Help Centre on 1300 365 255. For further guidance material and information visit Safe Work Australia at www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au. Thank you The following persons and businesses have made key contributions to this publication by providing their expertise and professional experience for the betterment of the Hair Beauty Community. Shelley Rowett Bev Hodge Penny Curtis SafeWork SA SafeWork SA Service Skills SA Senior Project Officer Project Manager Shelley Morton Board Directors Louise Millington Hair Beauty SA Hair Beauty SA Hair Co-op- WHS Advisor Merrill Gratton Trish McLean Francine Hodgins TAFESA Hair Beauty Emendee Pty Ltd WHS Advisor Chic Nails Beauty Bec Cochrane Amber-lee Hunt Rhys Hewett Media Make-up Academy Vanilla Vibe Hair 2 Heart Graphic Alliance rhys hewett 0408 718 288 www.graphicalliance.com.au 2 Grants Project Disclaimer Statement Whilst all due care has been taken in collecting collating and interpreting information relevant to the South Australian workers and PCBUs some omissions may have occurred. The statements and opinions contained in this resource are given in good faith and in the belief that they are not false or misleading. Hair Beauty Industry Association of South Australia Inc. does not take responsibility in any way whatsoever to any person or organisation in respect of the resource including any errors or omissions therein however caused. This resource is not the only Work Health and Safety resource available for those who operate or work in South Australia but has been tailored to include and consider situational factors which are particularly relevant to workers and PCBUs in the Hair and Beauty industry. Copyright statement grants project All Rights Reserved Hair Beauty Industry Association of South Australia Inc. The use of this material is subject to the terms of copyright laws. The data contained within this publication is copyright. Users of this document within South Australia are permitted to copy and use templates of forms policies and procedures contained within the document. They are not permitted to reproduce the document for sale or distribution without appropriate acknowledgement of the copyrights as cited within this statement and the use of the disclaimer statement used in this document. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 Commonwealth no part of this publication may be reproduced by persons or organisations located outside South Australia by any process without the specific written permission of the copyright owners. Enquiries should be directed to SafeWork SA 1300 365 255 3 Contents 1 Introduction 5 1.1 What is this guide about 5 1.2 Who is this guide for 5 1.3 Why is Work Health and Safety important 5 1.4 What are my obligations 6 1.5 Working with SafeWork SA 7 2 Dealing with specific hazards 9 2.1 What is risk management 9 2.2 Salon hazards 10 2.3 Hazardous Chemicals 13 2.4 Electrical Equipment 23 2.5 Hazardous Manual Tasks Musculoskeletal 29 2.6 Plant Mechanical 32 2.7 Biological hazards 34 2.8 Dermatitis 38 2.9 Radiation hazards 42 3 Workplace wellbeing and team management 44 3.1 Equal Opportunities - creating a fair workplace 45 3.2 Emotional Health 50 3.3 Providing Good Workplace Hygiene House Keeping 52 3.4 Security Remote working 54 3.5 Fire prevention 55 3.6 Emergency procedures 56 3.7 First aid and training 58 3.8 Had an accident what to do 59 4 Further Information 61 Legend Flag Resource i 4 Hair Beauty SA provides its Members networking solutions and information on Industrial Relations Modern Awards Guides on SafeWork Practices Networking with Mentoring Programs Support and solutions from the ATO Advantages in Banking Options with Insurance Forums and Seminars for Platforms for Competitions and Shows Business Solutions We are South Australias state peak association for the Hair Beauty Industry since 1938. Servicing the Hair Beauty Nail and Make-Up professionals providing networking for Employers Employees Students Educators Industry related wholesalers and Freelance Operators We believe in inspiring young people and reinvigorating career pathway options. Supporting apprenticeships and traineeships and promoting higher education and training to sustain successful businesses. Provide our industry with opportunities to be competitive and creative and pay recognition to those achievements. It is important that we engage in good business practices uphold a code of ethics and provide alternative business options through our networking groups. CONTACT US 08 8271 1355 Mon-Thurs 9am-3pm infohairandbeauty.com.au www.hairandbeautysa.com.au air Beauty SA the states peak association since 1938 has a long standing history servicing he professional Hair Beauty Nails and Make-up Industry. Providing fundamental networks and nformation for employers employees students and all industry related wholesalers educators eelance operators and dedicated industry related business. Contributing to its success the association is largely run by industry professionals volunteering heir expertise to our community. Were actively working on ongoing matters that affect you in our everyday work place and will continue to collaborate with organisations and government reating avenues for better outcomes. ringing the latest updates on industrial relations Modern Awards tax solutions mentoring pro- rams providing information on safe work practices such as this publication and mental health sues such as the hair to heart program and much more... We believe in inspiring young people and reinvigorating career pathway options supporting ap- renticeships and traineeships promoting higher education and training packages providing ur industry with competitions and pay recognition of achievements. It is important that we en- age in good business practices uphold code of ethics and provide better business benefits thru anking insurance legal advisors forums and seminars. JOIN NOW Inclusive membership benefits are a one off annual subscription fee less than 6 per week provided with regular news letters promoting events seminars social network- ing and competitions. Unlimited support calls automatic industry updates and importantly a voice to represent you. CONTACT US 08 8271 1355 Mon-Thurs 9-3 email infohairandbeautysa.com.au GET INVOLVED BE INFORMED AND BECOME A MEMBER ITS THE SMART WAY FOR THE SUCCESS OF YOUR BUSINESS BENEFIT NOW JOIN TODAY annual subscription fee less than 6 pwk regular news letters access to events seminars competitions unlimited support calls an industry voice GET INVOLVED BE INFORMED AND BECOME A MEMBER HELPING IMPROVE THE SUCCESS OF YOUR BUSINESS U i v em 5 1 Introduction 1.1 What is this guide about This guide is to help you understand the relevance of Work Health and Safety WHS in the Hair and Beauty industry. Whether you are a PCBU worker or student we are all responsible for Work Health and Safety in the workplace. Much of the content is derived from the Work Health and Safety legislation which was created to ensure South Australians meet the national standard of health and safety and keep all Australians safe at work. This guide will outline your obligations whilst providing suggestions on how to implement effective Work Health and Safety practices into your workplace. There are many workplace hazards in the Hair and Beauty industry that have the potential to create work health and safety risks for you your workers and your clients. In summary this guide will provide information on Topics you are responsible for ensuring that all legal and moral obligations in regards to WHS are being met Links to sites and information that will help you fulfil your obligations as a PCBU The hazards typically found in the Hair and Beauty industry Ways to manage exposure to the risk arising from these hazards Tools to help implement training and compliance 1.2 Who is this guide for You must ensure the health and safety of yourself your workers and your clients if you provide services in Hairdressing Beauty Therapy Make-up artistry Nails Laser beauty treatments 1.3 Why is Work Health and Safety important Protecting the health and safety of people at work is simply good business as workers are a businesses most important asset. Businesses who put Work Health and Safety practices in place benefit by Increased productivity driven by efficiency Less down-time due to disruption from faulty equipment safety issues and employee absenteeism Increased team work and improved morale as people work together Avoiding unnecessary costs if someone is injured Avoiding legal action or penalties for failure to comply with the law JOIN NOW Inclusive membership benefits are a one off annual subscription fee less than 6 per week provided with regular news letters promoting events seminars social network- ing and competitions. Unlimited support calls automatic industry updates and importantly a voice to represent you. CONTACT US 08 8271 1355 Mon-Thurs 9-3 mail infohairandbeautysa.com.au for more information go to www.hairandbeautysa.com.au 6 1.4 What are my obligations The Work Health and Safety Act 2012 SA places an obligation on every person associated with work in any way to ensure his or her own health and safety and the health and safety of others. Under the Act a person can have more than one set of obligations. PCBU EMPLOYER Under the Act the term employer is replaced by person conducting a business or undertaking PCBU. Whilst everyone in the workplace has a role to play with Work Health and Safety a PCBU has the primary duty of care for workplace health and safety. Who can be a PCBU Person Conducting A Business Or Undertaking A PCBU includes an employer corporation association partnership sole trader and certain volunteer organisations. What are the duties of a PCBU The duties of a PCBU established in the Work Health and Safety Act 2012 SA WHS Act are generally the same as those for an employer established in the previous Occupational Health Safety and Welfare Act 1986 SA a PCBU must ensure the health and safety of workers customers and visitors by so far as reasonably practicable eliminating or minimising risks at the workplace. Fact Sheet PCBUs Officers and Workers Updated 30 November 2012 PDF 53 kb What are the responsibilities of a PCBU Create a safe workplace and ways of working Manage monitor and resolve Work Health and Safety issues Maintain equipment and hygienic facilities including toilets eating and first aid areas Provide workers with information training and appropriate supervision Allow workers to contribute to decisions that may affect their health and safety Create strategic ways to identify and deal with hazards in the workplace Maintain records on work related injuries Comply with the requirements under the Work Health and Safety regulations Provide clean air for your employees and clients WORKER manager team member contractor sub-contractor apprentice trainee student gaining work experience As a worker you must Comply with your PCBUs instructions regarding all health and safety matters Use all WHS equipment provided engineered personal protective equipment or administrative etc. Participate in safety training sessions provided by your PCBU Take reasonable care to protect your own health and safety at work Take reasonable care to avoid adversely affecting the health and safety of any other person through an act or omission at work Report hazards to your employer 7 If you notice something in your workplace that you think is unhealthy or unsafe you should tell your PCBU or supervisor immediately. A co-operative approach between PCBU and workers is encouraged to promote a healthy and safe working environment. SELF EMPLOYED contractor freelance If you are a freelance makeup artist hair stylist or nail technician you are self-employed and therefore regarded as a PCBU. Ultimately you must ensure that your health and safety and the health and safety of other people are not affected by the way you carry out your business and work activity. To understand your obligations as a PCBU refer to the resource on page 6. 1.5 Working with SafeWork SA As South Australias Work Health and Safety agency SafeWork SA regulates promotes and encourages safe fair productive working lives. SafeWork SA administers SAs work health and safety and industrial relations legislation. It is the agencys role to assist everyone to understand their roles in creating safe workplaces which is a great thing for us all. SafeWork SA is dedicated to increasing workplace safety through active involvement and consultation with employers businesses workers and the community. SafeWork SA can provide advice on regulatory obligations and assist businesses to comply. SafeWork SA officers may visit salons to help a business comply through a community engagement program or may respond following an incident. Officers will work with business to ensure they have safe work practices in place. If a WHS Inspector visits following an incident they will work according to SafeWork SAs Enforcement Policy. You can read about SafeWork SAs Enforcement Policy and Principles of Operation here ENFORCEMENT Policy PDF 100kb and Principles of Operation PDF 65 kb Important This information provides guidance on Work Health and Safety matters. It may refer to legislation that has been amended or repealed and should not be taken as a statement of law. To ensure compliance with your legal obligations you should always refer to the current Work Health and Safety Legislation. For further information visit www.safework.sa.gov.au or call their Help Centre 1300 365 255 8 1.6 Other obligations relevant to health The South Australian Public Health Act 2011 also imposes a general duty of care for the protection of public health. This legislation is administered and enforced by authorised Environmental Health Officers for local councils together with SA Health. For more information refer to the guidelines on the Public Health Standards of Practice for Hairdressing and Guidelines on the Safe and Hygienic Practice of Skin Penetration at httpwww.sahealth.sa.gov.auwpswcmconnectpubliccontentsahealthinternet protectingpublichealthhairdressingbodyartandpiercing Good people to know for salon insurance. Good people to know for salon insurance. WFI are proud to have an association with Hair and Beauty SA and support the industry through this relationship. We have a network of Area Managers across South Australia who can visit you on site to discuss your insurance requirements. To find out for yourself why WFI are good people to know call 1300 934 934 or visit wfi.com.au To see if our products are right for you always read the PDS from the product issuer WFI ABN 24 000 036 279 ASFL 241461.If you take out a policy with WFI Hair Beauty SA receives a commission from WFI of between 5 and 7.5 of the value of the premium payment excluding taxes and charges. 9 2 Dealing with specific hazards Code of Practice How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks Fact Sheet How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks 2.1 What is risk management Work health and safety can generally be managed by following a problem solving strategy known as risk management. Although you are probably already carrying out the steps of risk management without realising it following this guide will make it more effective for you. The four steps of risk management are STEP 1 Identify hazards STEP 2 Assess risks STEP 3 Control risk STEP 4 Review control measures For more information on the risk management process refer to the Code of Practice How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks. Control Measures from most to least effective 1 Eliminate Where possible remove the hazard and the risk of exposure to the hazard e.g. remove dangerous equipment or stop an unsafe work practice. 2 Substitute Reduce a risk by substituting a less hazardous process substance or item of plant for the one currently used. 3 Isolate Prevent or minimise the risk by isolating the worker from the hazard or the hazard from the worker. 4 Engineering Controls An engineering control is a control measure that is physical in nature including a mechanical device or process. For example the use of a trolley to move boxes of product. 5 Administrative Controls Administrative controls are work methods or procedures that are designed to minimise exposure to hazards. e.g. job rotation or using signs to warn people of a hazard. 6 Personal Protective Equipment Personal Protective Equipment PPE is the least effective way to manage a hazard and should only be used in conjunction with one or more other control methods. Examples of PPE include effective face masks gloves aprons and protective eye wear. 10 2.2 Salon hazards The workplace must be assessed continuously by the employer for any dangerous plant equipment or substances that may cause injury or harm to a person in the workplace. Workers employed in the workplace should also have an awareness of hazards to be able to report any possible dangerous situations. The following are a few of the hazards you may come across in your salon Fixtures and fittings forming the salon structure need to be laid out to create easy accessibility for operators. Fixtures and fittings must also be soundly structured and fitted within the salon and maintained in good repair. Workstations are busy areas and require enough movement space for the client and the operator to access and use equipment. Congestion can cause accidents. Power points at workstations should be at bench level to prevent equipment cords creating a tripping hazard. Chairs purchased for a hairdressing salon work area should be height adjustable to enable the operators to work on clients at a suitable level preventing possible neck arm and shoulder complaints. Stools may be used by operators when performing some hairdressing services. This will relieve stress on the legs and body joints. Floor surfaces in a salon are used constantly by clients and operators and subjected to spillages of water and chemicals as well as hair clippings. It is important that hair clippings and any spillages are removed quickly to prevent any person slipping over also see pg. 53. Lighting must be sufficient in the salon area for operators to work efficiently and safely. Poor lighting may also cause eye strain and confuse the operator in colour choice selection for clients also see pg. 53. Trolleys are used constantly by operators and therefore must be of a suitable height moveable and stable so as not to tip over causing injury to any person. Keep the wheels of trolleys free of hair to prevent them from tipping over. Tools of Trade consideration must be given to ease of manipulation of our tools of trade. Continuous use of these tools requires that the size and weight of tools must be considered to avoid stress on fingers wrists arms shoulders etc. The aim is to reduce any possible stress on the body by correct choice of equipment. Training in the use of sharp equipment scissors and razors is essential for operator and client safety. Special bins should be allocated for the disposal of sharp blades and razors. Electrical equipment must be checked and maintained in good repair to avoid risk of injury. Electrical equipment must also be kept away from water. Operators must have dry hands when using any type of electrical equipment. Do not leave electrical cords dangling in busy works areas creating a hazard. also see pg. 23 Clean air is a requirement for workplace health and safety. Vapours and chemical dusts may be a health risk. Adequate extraction for both harmful dusts and vapour is necessary at the site of production and good ventilation should be provided within the salon as a whole. Beauty Beds There are a variety of models and styles available in the Beauty clinics and Wellness centres across the industry. Information contained below are guidelines to ensure safe usage of beds to perform the variety of services and treatments. 11 Portable and fixed beds Read manufactures instruction manual. Portable tables should only be used by trained personnel. Maintain the table periodically. Make sure all screws are secure and the cable has not deteriorated or frayed. Check that there are no cracks in the structure. Do not overload the table beyond the recommended weight limit. This could result in serious injury to the user. Please refer to Portable Massage table guide for Table weight limits. Limits are approximately 500 pounds of combined maximum working weight. Ensure that legs are adjusted to the operators working height and the locking button on each leg is protruding fully from the hole. Test the table stability by applying pressure with both hands before allowing the client on the table. Position client in the centre of the table to distribute the weight evenly and ensure stability. Make sure when using the table that all four legs are on a solid surface and at the same level. Ensure to test the backrest is appropriately locked into place by applying weight after all adjustments. Cleaning the vinyl must be done with warm soapy water and wiped dry noting alcohol based products could damage the vinyl. When folding portable tables ensure all limbs are clear of table area. Ensure handles are flipped back whilst folding or they may become damaged. When transporting portable tables ensure the appropriate heavy duty transit cover is used to protect the vinyl from damage. Electric treatment tables Electrical testing and servicing of tables recommended annually. Read manufacturers manual for usage recommendations and instructions. Incorrect care and usage of electric tables may cause injury andor reduce the life of the table. Careful unpacking and installation of electric tables is essential and you should always refer to the manufacturers manual for installation and usage instructions. Ensure the power cord is clear from any moving parts and your feet are clear of the power cord when you adjust the height of the table. Power outlet recommended in Australia is 240VAC 50Hz or 110VAC 60 Hz. Ensure the footswitch cord is connected onto the brass tube on the actuator to adjust height of table. Check all adjustments of the table are in good working order e.g. head back and leg. Do not make adjustments to the table without making sure the client is clear of all moving parts. Care must be taken to ensure the power cord does not get damaged by components of the table. Tables must be cleaned after each use with a mild non-abrasive soap and water rinsed and dried thoroughly. Use of cleaners containing hydrocarbons or similar additives may damage the vinyl. Following hygiene and cleaning procedures eliminates risk of contamination from one client to another and also is a damage prevention mechanism as perspiration and oil can cause hardening of the vinyl. 12 RISK CONTROL MEASURES Moving parts of appliances should be positioned or enclosed to prevent access by any person or any part of a person so as to prevent injury. Where guards or enclosures are provided they should have adequate mechanical strength and only be detachable using a special tool. Access to the table or bed should be restricted to the operator and client only. This might be achieved through the placement of physical barriers or by ensuring that only operators and clients have access to treatment areas. Under no circumstance should a child be present in a room in which electrically adjustable treatment tables or beds exist except as a client on the appliance as an age appropriate child who can be safely accommodated in a playpen For the operator visibility beyond and below the table top in most cases is restricted. During table height adjustment the operator must check below the table-top and ensure that children other than those being treated at the time are not in the vicinity of the table or bed. Any operating controls should be positioned so the opportunity for unintentional activation is avoided. Employers who operate these appliances must ensure adequate training is given to operators and workers on how the appliance works load limits and all designer or manufacturer built-in safety features. This includes power source isolation thermal overload protection and reset procedures. Massage table manufacturers and suppliers PCBUs and workers and owners who operate these appliances must assess these hazards and implement appropriate control measures to eliminate or minimise the risks from these hazards. 13 2.3 Hazardous Chemicals WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 chapter 7 Code of Practice Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals in the Work Place Fact Sheet Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace 2.3.1 What are hazardous chemicals Workers in the Hair and Beauty industry may be exposed to a wide range of products containing Hazardous Chemicals including bleachespowder lighteners brow and lash tints chemical peels disinfectants and cleaning products hair colouring products hair styling products nail productsacrylic and gel powders skin care products permanent wave solutions peroxides shampoos smoothing systems straightening systems wax solvents Exposure to some of these chemicals can increase the risk of various health problems. Some examples are explained in the following table. Health Effects From Exposure To Hazardous Chemicals Dermatitis inflammation of the skin There are two types of dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis results from contact with irritant substances such as water and detergents in shampoo. Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a person develops an allergic response to a chemical. Asthma a respiratory disease which narrows the air passages and results in breathing difficulties Chemicals used in the Hair and Beauty industry may aggravate pre-existing asthma or cause occupational asthma. Cancer Workers in the Hair and Beauty industry may be exposed to chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer. There is limited and inconsistent data to support this. So the precautionary approach is to limit exposure. Hazardous chemicals can enter the body through the skin by inhalation or by swallowing. Acute health effects such as eye and throat irritation may occur almost immediately. Chronic health effects such as allergic contact dermatitis take some time to develop. 14 The likelihood of a hazardous chemical causing health effects depends on a number of factors including the toxicity of the substance the amount of chemical that workers are exposed to the length of exposure the frequency of exposure the route of entry into the body e.g. skin absorption inhalation or ingestion. You can determine whether a product is a hazardous chemical by reading its label and safety data sheet SDS. If you are unsure contact your supplier. Every salon is required to supply staff with easy access to the safety data sheets. 2.3.2 Safety Data Sheet SDS A SDS is a document that provides detailed information about a hazardous chemical including the identity of the chemical product and its ingredients the hazards of the chemical including health hazards physical hazards and environmental hazards physical properties of the chemical like boiling point flash point and incompatibilities with other chemicals workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants safe handling and storage procedures for the chemical what to do in the event of an emergency or spill first aid information and transport information. The information in a SDS is arranged under 16 headings to allow relevant information to be easily located by the person using the chemical. For a list of these 16 heading refer to the fact sheet on page 15. Safety Data Sheets were previously referred to as Material Safety Data sheets MSDS You should always check that the SDS relates to the chemical that you have received or are using. This can easily be done by checking that the product or chemical name on the SDS is the same as on the product label of the container. Before using a chemical in the workplace you should also make some simple checks to see whether it complies with the WHS Regulations. Is the SDS written in English Does the SDS contain 16 separate headings These and the contents of each section are further discussed below. Does the SDS state the name address and business telephone number of the Australian importer or manufacturer Does the SDS give an Australian business telephone number from which further information about the chemical can be obtained in an emergency Was the SDS prepared within the last five years 15 If the contents of a container are unknown it should be labeled caution do not use - unknown substance. Store all unknown chemicals in isolation until the contents can be identified and properly labeled. If the chemical cannot be identified dispose of it. You should contact the Environmental Protection Agency for advice on disposal requirements. Code of Practice Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals Fact Sheet Understanding Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals 2.3.3 Hazardous Chemical Register The hazardous chemical register is a list of hazardous chemicals at your workplace accompanied by the current safety data sheet SDS for each of those chemicals. A hazardous chemical register is required under the Work Health and Safety Regulations to be prepared and kept up-to- date so that workers can easily find information about chemicals stored handled or used at the workplace. The hazardous chemical register must be readily accessible to all workers involved in the use storage and handling of the hazardous chemicals and to anyone else who is likely to be affected by the chemical at the workplace. Which chemicals do I include All hazardous chemicals that are stored handled or used at the workplace should be listed unless they fall into two categories Consumer products items that can be bought by the general public in a retail shop and are used in the workplace in the same way and in the same quantity as normal household use In transit products that are not kept in the workplace for more than five consecutive days. However if your salon keeps industrial large amounts quantities of hazardous chemicals they are then required to be listed on the register. For example a 500g Box of washing powder would not be included whereas a 30kg tub would. httpwww.safeworkaustralia.gov.ausitesswaaboutpublicationspages hazardous-chemicals-register Fact Sheet Hazardous chemicals register 2.3.4 Ventilation 16 Work involving Hazardous Chemicals such as chemical restructuring hair colouring application of artificial nails or spray tanning should occur in a well-ventilated area. Natural ventilation generally does not provide sufficient airflow to be suitable for use as a method for controlling exposure to airborne contaminants such as chemical vapours mists and dusts in hairdressing nail and beauty salons. Air-conditioning dilutes the contaminated air rather than removing it and circulates airborne contaminants around the room. Unless there is uniform airflow it is likely that pockets of air will remain contaminated for long periods. Local exhaust ventilation is a more reliable means for removing airborne contaminants at the source before they can be breathed in. Care must be taken to ensure the system draws contaminated air away from rather than past a persons nose and mouth. Workplace air quality checklist 0 Do strong odours linger for more than 10 minutes 0 Can strong odours be detected at a distance from the source ie the other side of the room 0 Do you still smell product odours when you open the salon in the morning 0 Do the walls ever sweat with moisture or the windows become foggy 0 Do clients complain of offensive odours 0 Do you ever have to open the window or door because the odours become too strong 0 Are you or your clients covered in dust or inhaling air borne chemicals If you answered yes to one or more of the above questions the ventilation at your workplace needs improvement. 17 2.3.4 Control Measures Every person in the workplace is responsible for assessing the risk associated with hazardous chemicals to themselves and for others. A PCBU is required to ensure that appropriate controls are in place to prevent and manage those risks. PCBUs are required to do regular andor new risk assessments when information on work practices or control measures are changed or introduced and to keep a record about the risk assessment. For a chemical risk assessment checklist refer to appendix G in the Code of Practice Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals in the Work Place. If a risk assessment shows that exposure to a hazardous chemical has taken place then the responsible person should prevent further exposures or reduce it as much as possible. Where there is airborne exposure the responsible person must ensure that the level of exposure is not above the workplace exposure standard. The official list of workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants is contained within the Safe Work Australia publication Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants. Workplace exposure standards are also available within the Hazardous Substances Information System database at httphsis.safeworkaustralia. gov.au. This database contains additional information and guidance for many substances. Safe Work Australia Workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants HAIR BEAUTY INDUSTRY - CONTROL MEASURES Below you will find a list of general Hair and Beauty industry control measures. From page 18 you will find specific control measures for hairdressing beauty and nails. Substitution Replace a chemical with an alternative product that contains a less hazardous chemical. Health information found in a SDS may assist in the selection of a less hazardous chemical. Replace pressurised aerosol containers with pump sprays e.g. pressurised wrap catalyst hairsprays. Engineering Controls Make sure there is good ventilation so that exposure to airborne contaminants can be prevented or minimised e.g. local exhaust ventilation tested to show adequate removal of the hazards. Protect against eye splash by wearing safety glasses in areas where chemicals are mixed. Make sure that the motors of machines within 3 metres of the nail stations or close to the chemical storage area are intrinsically safe no spark or heat to ignite chemicals or vapour 18 Administrative controls Make sure SDSs are available for all chemicals used in the salon. Make sure workers are provided with suitable information training and supervision on the safe use of chemicals and PPE personal protective equipment. Store chemicals away from energy sources such as fuse boxes naked flames heat and intense light sources. Store flammable chemicals in a cool place in a securely locked fireproof cabinet. Make sure chemicals are out of reach of children. Make sure procedures are in place for the clean-up of spills using a suitable absorbent material. Refer to the SDS. Clean up chemical spills promptly. Make sure that spilled chemicals and equipment used for chemical clean-up are disposed of appropriately. Contact the Environmental Protection Authority for further advice. Purchase chemicals in ready-to-use packages rather than transferring from large containers. Do not eat drink or smoke in areas that contain chemicals. Wash hands with a pH neutral soap or barrier cream before eating drinking or smoking. Personal Protective Equipment Provide gloves glasses aprons and respiratory protection as required on the SDS or chosen during your Hazardous Chemicals risk assessment. Provide workers with training on the fit maintenance and use of personal protective equipment. Apply barrier cream on exposed skin areas if bothered by skin irritation. Cover broken skin with a waterproof dressing. Wear eye protection and covered shoes to protect against chemical splashes. HAIRDRESSING SPECIFIC CONTROL MEASURES Many products used in hairdressing salons are classed as Hazardous Chemicals. However some products such as shampoos are not classified as hazardous but may still cause adverse health effects such as dermatitis. The following is a summarised list of specific control measures Do not use products that are known to contribute to dermatitis or cause sensitivity without adequate controls are available such as p-phenylene diamine and Para toluene diamine present in most hair colours and tints also known as PPD and PTD glycerol monothioglycolate present in some acid permanent wave solutions also known as GMTG thioglycolic acid present in some hair straighteners Do not use nickel-plated equipment with permanent wave solutions containing ammonium thioglycolate refer to the SDS. Use high quality stainless steel or plastic equipment. Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment PPE during mixing or when there is elevated exposure potential. 19 BEAUTY THERAPY SPECIFIC CONTROL MEASURES Beauty therapists beauticians and nail technicians use a variety of products that contain Hazardous Chemicals. For example nail polish remover non acetone and acetone acetate formaldehyde nail strengthener wax solvents. Ensure workers wear gloves and safety goggles or glasses over contact lenses or replace contact lenses with prescriptive safety glasses with side protection when mixing or using the following Peroxides mixed with eyelash and eyebrow tints Wax solvents Methylated spirits Turpentine Essential oils Refer to the SDS for further information on these products. In most cases the concentration of Hazardous Chemicals in these products does not classify the product as hazardous for regulatory purposes. Workers with pre-existing skin conditions may need to take particular care when using these products. NAIL INDUSTRY SPECIFIC CONTROL MEASURES EMA MMA Both ethyl methacrylate EMA and methyl methacrylate MMA have been used as an ingredient in artificial nail products. These chemicals can exist as a monomer nail liquid or polymer nail powder. MMA monomer nail liquid is considered too dangerous for use in the beauty industry as it causes too many adverse health effects. In Australia MMA cannot be used in any cosmetic products at concentrations higher than 1. MMA is also known as Methyl methacylate monomer Methacrylic acid methyl ester 2-methylacrylic acid methyl ester Methyl2-methyl-2-propenoate 2-methyl-2-propenoic acid methyl ester 2-methoxycarbonyl-1-propene Methyl alpha-methacrylate Methylpropylene-2-carboxylate Acrylic acid 2-methyl- methyl ester 20 According to the Australian Government Department of Environment listed on the National Pollutant Inventory and also National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme NICNAS short term exposure risks include but are not limited to- Allergic response on contact Permanent damageloss of the nail plate Loss of sensation in the fingertips Skin sensitisation Nerve damage Drowsiness light headedness dizzy spells Trembling of the hands Loss of smell Respiratory irritation Dust compaction in the nasal cavity requiring sinus scraping. In higher concentrations the following adverse health effects can also occur- Liver damage Kidney damage Nasal lesions Decrease in fertility or sterility Australian atmospheric contaminant exposure standards apply to MMAEMA Time weighted average 8 hour TWA 50 parts per million ppm208 mgm3 Short term exposure limit 15 min STEL 100 ppm 416 mgm3 Under the WHS Regulations the PCBU is responsible for providing clean air to both workers and clients. The National Beauty Therapy Package already requires all training schools teaching artificial nails to have local exhaust ventilation LEV. LEV needs to be maintained and tested regularly to ensure removal of any harmful contaminants to ensure a safe working environment. It should be noted that uptake of these chemicals is usually by inhalation and skin absorption. All sources eg data sheets and information suggest these products to be used over vented workstations. Vapour and dust remembering dust contains ALL of the products applied to the nail from these products may be harmful. 21 Checklist to identify whether a product contains MMA monomer 0 Is MMA listed as an ingredient on the SDS and label 0 Does the product have an unusually strong or fruity odour that does not smell like other acrylic liquids 0 Does the product seem to set much harder and feel less flexible than other products 0 Are the nail extensions extremely hard and very difficult to file even with course abrasives 0 Do the nail extensions not soak off in acetone within 30 - 35 minutes 0 Is the resulting product after soaking still of chewing gum like consistency Although EMA is considered a safer alternative to MMA monomer for clients as it has less strong adhesion to the natural nail the health effects from inhalation and absorption of this product mirror many of the health effects listed for MMA. The engineering control for elimination of the product at the source should be provided by vented workstations. Other chemical hazards from products that are used in the nail industry are- Acetone nail polish remover headaches dizziness and irritated eyes skin and throat. Acetonitrile fingernail glue remover irritated nose and throat breathing problems nausea vomiting weakness and exhaustion. Butyl acetate nail polish nail polish remover headaches and irritated eyes skin nose mouth and throat Dibutyl phthalate DBP nail polish nausea and irritated eyes skin nose mouth and throat. Long-term exposures to high concentrations may cause other serious effects. Ethyl acetate nail polish nail polish remover fingernail glue irritated eyes stomach skin nose mouth and throat high levels can cause fainting. Ethyl methacrylate EMA artificial nail liquid asthma irritated eyes skin nose and mouth difficulty concentrating. Exposures while pregnant may affect your child. Formaldehyde nail polish nail hardener difficulty breathing including coughing asthma-like attacks and wheezing allergic reactions irritated eyes skin and throat. Formaldehyde may cause cancer. Isopropyl acetate nail polish nail polish remover sleepiness and irritated eyes nose and throat. Methacrylic acid nail primer skin burns and irritated eyes skin nose mouth and throat. At higher concentrations this chemical can cause difficulty breathing. Methyl methacrylate MMA artificial nail products though banned for use in many states asthma irritated eyes skin nose and mouth difficulty concentrating loss of smell. Quaternary ammonium compounds disinfectants irritated skin and nose and may cause asthma. Toluene nail polish fingernail glue dry or cracked skin headaches dizziness and numbness irritated eyes nose throat and lungs damage to liver and kidneys and harm to unborn children during pregnancy. httpswww.osha.govSLTCnailsalonschemicalhazards.html 22 DOs DONTS Do not use products containing liquid methyl methacrylate MMA monomer. Work over a tested vented workstation to ensure the maximum of vapour and dust removal. Use a metal foot pedalled flip top bin and empty regularly. Provide a transparent screen between the nails and the eyes of both the technician and the client to reduce the risk of eye injury from clippings chemical splashes etc. clear glasses PPE. Use dispenser bottles with small openings only large enough for an application brush to enter and pressure sensitive stoppers to reduce the amount of release of vapours. Know that LowNo odour products do not mean LowNo Vapour. Vapours of these products can in actual fact contain more harmful fumes than their full odour counterparts. Close product containers immediately after use. Clean up any product spills quickly and efficiently. Remove reusable towels from the workstation. Use disposable towel products. Towels on the workstation will collect dust and bacteria and any movement will release these hazards back into the breathing zone. Use disposable towels for cleaning brushes etc. dispose of these into a sealed bin. All nail products are highly flammable so do not smoke or allow clients to smoke while working do not have scented candles or any other type of open flame in the nail area make sure that the vented workstation and other electrical devices are intrinsically safe this means they do not produce spark or heat do not use an ioniser within 3 metres of the nail workstations or chemicals as it produces static electricity that can be discharged in an up to 10cm spark Respirators P2 are protective against the fine dust that is produced from the filing of artificial nails but are NOT effective against many chemical vapours. Remember that personal protective equipment PPE is the least effective and the last resort for protection. When using PPE other controls must be in place to control the hazards at their source. Workers given respiratory protection must be trained in its use eg how to fit it properly and maintain it. For more information on PPE have a look at the below resource. Safe Work Australia FAQ Personal Protective Equipment 23 2.4 Electrical Equipment WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 chapter 4 part 7 The use of electrical equipment can create serious health and safety risks in the Hair and Beauty industry particularly in wet conditions. Damage to equipment increases this risk. Electrical shock can result in electrocution burns and injuries. Work Health and Safety Legislation requires PCBUs to develop a systematic approach to their management of electrical safety. This approach requires PBCUs to consult with workers during the identification assessment and control of risks associated with electrical plant and electrical installations. In regards to electrical safety in the workplace hair and beauty industry workers need to be familiar with the following terms Electrical installation - any accessible electrical wiring accessory fitting consuming device control or protective gear or other equipment associated with wiring in or on a workplace. Electrical plant - any item which consumes converts or generates electricity e.g. UV lamp. Residual Current Devices RCDs - a safety device that disconnects a circuit when it detects an imbalance of the electric current eg due to leakage current. An RCD can be fixed or portable and is also known as a Safety Switch. The Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 and relevant Australian New Zealand Standards provide the minimum requirements for safety of electrical installations the testing and tagging of certain moveable equipment e.g. blow dryer the maintenance of the salon environment for example the use of Residual Current Devices RCDs for protection from earth leakage. Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 Code of Practice Managing Electrical Risks in the Workplace 24 2.4.1 Electrical safety Of all common energy sources electricity has the greatest potential and ability to seriously injure and kill. Electrical safety is all about the control of risks associated with electrical shock and electrical fire in the workplace. The risk of electrical shock can arise from exposed live parts eg. contacts and conductors damaged insulation on the electrical plant power leads or installation wiringservices the presence of water and electricity in the area in which equipment is used e.g. wet hands whilst turning on a power point The risk of electrical fire can arise from overloaded circuits loose connections heating equipment short circuits inappropriate electrical plant being used in hazardous environments 25 2.4.2 Residual Current Devices RCDs RCDs are required in workplaces where plugged-in electrical equipment is used ie. the supply of electricity is through the wall socket outlet. The need for an RCD is particularly important in the Hair and Beauty industry as the everyday work practices exposes the equipment to operating conditions that are likely to result in damage to the equipment or a reduction in its expected life span. For example it is common for a salons electrical equipment to be exposed to moisture heat vibration mechanical damage from knocks and dropping corrosive chemicals or be moved frequently. RCDs can either be Non-portable or fixed or portable as explained below Switchboard - Non-portable or fixed RCD Installed at either the switchboard or a fixed socket outlet. Non-portable RCDs installed at the main switchboard protect the wiring connected to the RCD and electrical equipment plugged into the protected circuit. Fixed Socket - Non-portable or fixed RCD Part of the fixed socket outlet they provide protection to electrical equipment plugged into the outlet. It is common to see a combination RCDCircuit Breakers being installed at the switchboards Non-portable RCDs must be regularly tested. Portable RCD Generally plugged into a socket outlet and depending on design may protect one or more items of electrical equipment. Portable RCDs can only be used to minimise risk when the electrical installation is not a new installation or a new and modified circuit in an existing installation in these cases a fixed RCD should be installed. Testing and maintenance of RCDs and portable RCDs that are moved from place-to-place need to be push button tested immediately after connection and each day prior to their use. 26 2.4.3 Testing and Tagging Electrical Equipment The WHS regulations require that equipment used in conditions likely to result in damage should be inspected and tested this includes exposure to moisture heat vibration mechanical damage corrosive chemicals or dust. Australian standard ASNZS 37602010 provides guidance on the frequency of testing. Electrical equipment subject to cord flexing and used in a hostile environment should be inspected every twelve months. No worker contractor or client is to use electrical equipment that does not meet the criteria above and does not display a valid inspection tag. When inspection and testing of electrical equipment identifies equipment that fails to comply with relevant standards the equipment must be withdrawn from service immediately. An outof service tag must be attached to the faulty equipment and sent for repair. Contractors must not use electrical equipment on any workplace premises undergoing renovation and or in a hostile environment unless testing and tagging of their own electrical equipment has been carried out in accordance with the standards. The scope of Australian and New Zealand Standards ASNZS 3760 In-service Safety Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment should be used to determine the inspection and testing requirements for electrical plant. Power boards must be included in equipment testing and tagging. Who is qualified to test and tag Only competent persons in inspection and testing and licensed electrical professionals should be engaged to carry out testing and tagging of electrical equipment. Opting to use a qualified electrician to test and tag electrical equipment can save time as they are also qualified to fix the faulty equipment. 27 Electrical Safety Checklist 0 Ensure all electrical equipment used in conditions likely to result in damage is regularly tested and tagged 0 Ensure your premises and electrical equipment is fitted with suitable RCDs 0 Advise visiting hair and beauty contractors that their equipment is required to have valid inspection tags 0 Request buildingmaintenance contractors to provide a Job Safety Analysis prior to starting work 0 Conduct regular equipment checks 0 Use power boards instead of double adaptors 0 Install additional socket outlets to avoid overloading power outlets 0 Do not run too many pieces of equipment from one socket 0 When adjusting or cleaning equipment SWITCH OFF the power and pull out the plug do NOT pull out by the cord 0 Store and operate equipment away from damp areas 0 Avoid standing on a wet floor whist using any electrical equipment 0 Make sure leads do not run across wet surfaces or any place where they may be easily damaged 0 Clean up liquid spills as soon as possible 0 Do not touch equipment with wet hands 0 Do not use a wet cloth to clean sockets 0 Run leads along the edges of corridors to minimise the possibility of trips and falls 0 Keep leads away from heat oil and chemicals to prevent insulation damage 0 Make sure workers are trained in the use of equipment and that the manufacturers instructions are followed 0 Appropriately train your staff in electrical safety Job Safety Analysis JSA involves the contractor reviewing each task and considering what is the safest way to complete it to prevent an injury. 28 2.4.5 Responding to a HazardElectrical Incident Turn off the electricity supply to the electrical equipment involved in the incident. This is usually the wall power socket outlet that is closest to the equipment. If not locate the closest switchboarddistribution board supplying electricity to the salon. A trainedcompetent person should proceed to safely break the electrical contact between the injured person and the electricity supply. Where practical remove the equipment power plug from the power socket outlet. If this is not possible for any reason use a non-conductive item such as a wooden chair or broom handle break the contact points between the person and the electrical item source of electrical hazard. If someone is receiving an electric shock and another person touches this person may also receive the electric shock. Call 000 for an ambulance. If you do this as soon as possible help can be on the way while you are assisting the injured person. Once you have broken the contact between the casualty and the source of the shock commence First Aid as required. 2.5 Hazardous Manual Tasks Musculoskeletal WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 chapter 4 part 2 Code of Practice Hazardous Manual Tasks The hazardous manual tasks performed in the Hair and Beauty industry can be physically demanding and are responsible for the majority of musculoskeletal disorders. Disorders can include lower back pain neck and shoulder pain tendonitis of the shoulder or wrists leg discomfort or carpal tunnel syndrome. What is a hazardous manual task A task that requires a person to lift lower push pull carry or otherwise move hold or restrain any person animal or thing involving one or more of the following repetitive or sustained force e.g. massaging high or sudden force e.g. fall wet floor repetitive movement e.g. blow-drying or cutting sustained or awkward posture e.g. applying makeup exposure to vibration e.g. holding a blow-dryer or clippers These five factors are also known as the characteristics of a hazardous manual task. How do manual task injuries occur Injuries from manual tasks result from ongoing wear and tear to the joints ligaments tendons muscles and discs. Although less common injuries can be caused by a one-off overload situation. Over a period of time damage can gradually build up through holding fixed positions for a prolonged time performing repetitive movements that are fast andor involve a lot of muscular effort If insufficient breaks are taken muscle fatigue can lead to inflammation and tissue damage. Injury is more likely to occur when this happens repeatedly. What are the risk factors Risk factors are part of the demands of a job that affect the worker and can contribute to injury. These are set out in the table on the next page. 29 30 Risk Factors Prevention Tips Working postures Awkward postures require greater muscular effort and lead to greater fatigue particularly when holding a position for a long time To maintain a healthy body avoid the following bending or twisting your back during a task e.g. washing hair having your neck bent forward or twisted e.g. applying colour keeping your shoulders raised during work having the upper arms held out to the sides and away from the body e.g. massage cutting hair Repetition and duration Continually repeating a movement particularly with a forceful exertion increases the risk of injury. Long durations of awkward postures or repetitive work are also a risk. Ensure you have adequate breaks or job changes when working in high risk areas such as rolling hair filing nails prolonged sitting or standing prolonged bending or leaning e.g. electrolysis applying colour massaging cutting and blow drying Work area design The work area design and layout may require workers to bend or reach to perform tasks. Before commencing work consider the following in your workspace equipment and materials not located close to the worker causing workers to bend reach or twist non-adjustable chairs benches and massage beds work surfaces too high or too low poor lighting hard slippery floors work surfaces too wide or narrow Use of tools Poor design and excessive use of hand tools contributes to disorders of the wrist elbow and shoulder. Scenarios to assess and manage include working with heavy tools e.g. blow dryers difficult or awkward hand grips vibrating tools e.g. electric nail files and drills incorrect choice of scissors for an individuals needs Load handling Supporting a weight while holding arms away from the body increases stress to the back and shoulders. Scenarios to assess and manage include working with heavy tools e.g. holding a blow dryer away from the body holding a body part while waxing carrying heavy boxes of product to storage areas 31 ERGONOMIC HAZARDS SPECIFIC FOR THE NAIL INDUSTRY There are a number of ergonomic body movements issues that have adverse effects in the nail industry. These are lower back injuries shoulder and neck pain carpal tunnel issues elbow pain and upper back pain. Many of these can be avoided by some simple steps. Use a height adjustable chair and correct set up height upper shoulder and neck pain Make sure that if in the seated position the top of the knees are no higher than the height of the ball of the hip. If the back of the knees compress against the chair seat then put something under the feet to raise the knees to a comfortable position. Make sure the workstation is wide enough to accommodate the work 550mm is suggested as a width for sitting across from a client and working with their hands. Try to get up as much as possible but at least between each client. This is approximately every hour and should help prevent issues from prolonged sitting. Incorporate gentle stretching in these breaks if possible. Elevate the clients hands to remove the pressure from the technicians hands and arms. Use ergonomic rests that are made from materials that do not harbour dust or bacteria as forearm rests or use rolled foam pads or towels that can be laundered. This removes the issue of coming into contact with hard surfaces and potentially damaging the nerves in the forearm. Use safety glasses or magnifying lenses to reduce your need to bend over the client. CONTROL MEASURES Vary tasks frequently to give wrists shoulders or backs a rest. Alternate between sitting and standing when performing tasks such as cutting hair drying hair waxing or facials. Make sure all tools are maintained appropriately so they do not need extra effort to use. Provide positive posture training and regularly promote the need for good posture whilst working. Engineering Controls Provide adequate lighting for the task. Ensure there is enough room for easy movement around furniture and work areas. Provide non-slip surfaces that are comfortable for standing. Provide adjustable styling chairs and stools to avoid working with arms above shoulder height or constantly bending head forward. Provide adjustable tables benches massage couches. Place required work items within reach and close to waist height. Provide trolleys with castors to reduce carrying. Provide padding on table for nail work to protect elbows and underside of arms from nerve damage. Select well designed tools Discuss the selection and purchase of new tools and equipment with staff prior to purchase. Consider better designed tools that reduce force and awkward grips. Make sure that tools such as blow dryers are as light as possible. Provide appropriately designed scissors that keep your wrists straight and do not dig into the hand. Redesign work methods Work as close as possible to the client to reduce bending and reaching. Use haircutting stools rather than bending over. Ensure that the height of the massage bed is adjusted to prevent excessive bending. 32 Administrative controls Alternate tasks so that different muscles are used e.g. recover from cutting hair by folding towels sweeping floors reception duties variation in artificial nail filing techniques. Manage the number of bookings per worker particularly those involving demanding tasks e.g. highlighting hair. Personal protective equipment Wear comfortable footwear with shock absorbing soles or inserts if possible. 2.6 Plant Mechanical WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 5 Code of Practice Managing the Risks of Plant in the Workplace Introducing new or existing plant equipment into the work place may impact your work healthy and safety practices. Plant includes any machinery equipment appliance pressure vessel personal protective equipment and component of plant and a fitting connection accessory or adjunct to plant. All plant items should be selected for its specific purpose whilst ensuring it meets the individuals needs. Examples of plant in the Hair and Beauty industry include air conditioning systems air conditioning units autoclaves beauty beds see page 11 for details blow dryers cosmetic and tattoo equipment electrical styling equipment electric nail file and nail drill electric shaver and hair clippers electrolysis machines gel lights gloves hair dryers wall portable and hand lasers local exhaust workstations IPL Machines perm and colour accelerators roller balls safety glassesaprons and masks scissors various beauty therapy electrical equipment water heaters wax pots 33 Factors to consider when purchasing or obtaining plant include the plant has been constructed manufactured and installed to an acceptable standard the equipment satisfactorily performs its function noise levels are not a risk to hearing or health machinery has adequate testing to show it does the required function takes into account the flammability of the products being used Plant should not obstruct doorways and emergency exits and should also be secured against movement. In South Australia commercial sunbeds were banned from December 31st 2014. Regulations have been passed to protect South Australians from the harmful effects of UV radiation emitted by cosmetic tanning units. The Regulations which were made on 14 November 2013 under the Radiation and Protection and Control Act 1982 RPC Act which is administered by the EPA prohibited the commercial use of cosmetic tanning units from 31 December 2014. CONTROL MEASURES Isolation Turn off and unplug plant before cleaning maintenance or repair work commences. Withdraw damaged plant from service and label with an out of service tag until any risks to health and safety have been assessed and controlled. Administrative controls Ensure training in the safe use and maintenance of plant has been undertaken. Provide adequate supervision to workers and other persons. Make sure plant is operated serviced maintained and repaired according to the manufacturers specifications. Develop and implement an inspection program for plant. Keep a record of plant inspection servicing maintenance and repair. Ensure that electrical items have been tested and tagged refer to section 2.4 Electrical Equipment. 34 2.7 Biological hazards Code of Practice First Aid in the Workplace also see page 58 Workers in the Hair and Beauty industry are at risk of exposure to biological hazards that cause infectious diseases such as blood borne diseases e.g. Hepatitis B Hepatitis C and HIV skin infections e.g. staphylococcus aureus skin infestations e.g. head lice Hair and Beauty industry workers are exposed to blood and body substances through activities such as shaving electrolysis tweezing ear and body piercing manicure and pedicure application of artificial nails tattooing waxing skin extractions Exposure to blood and body substances may be from direct contact e.g. applying first aid to a bleeding client indirect contact e.g. handling contaminated or waste equipment Blood or body substances do not have to be visible on an instrument for an infection to be transmitted. Infection with a blood borne disease can occur if infected blood or body substances enter a persons body. This could occur by a skin penetrating injury e.g. accidentally piercing skin with a used electrolysis needle through broken skin e.g. a cut wound or dermatitis through mucous membranes e.g. blood splashing into a persons eyes or mouth Clients may be exposed to blood and body substances from equipment that has not been correctly cleaned and disinfected or sterilised. 35 2.7.1 Sharps Management Sharps syringes electrolysis and tattoo needles razor blades Needle stick injuries arising from discarded sharps pose significant risk of transmission of serious diseases as well as the risk of significant trauma. Used sharps should be discarded safely within the workplace. To minimise any risks associated with the disposal of sharps the following needs to be adhered to Sharps disposal kits must be made available at workplace premises. The kit must consist of tongs an approved portable sharps container and heavy duty gloves. Nominated workers are to be trained in the correct use of the sharps disposal kit. If a discarded sharps item is located in the workplace the person must do the following Ensure they do not touch the item Notify other people in the vicinity of the item Take reasonable steps to highlight the location of the sharp item i.e. get a staff member to stand near the item whilst the appropriate disposal equipment is retrieved Waste disposal should comply with any state or local government requirements. Contact your local council for advice. Dealing with a sharps incident If a worker suffers a sharp injury the following must occur Worker formally report injury immediately. The Responsible person manager will organise immediate first aid. Retain and safely store sharps item involved in the incident for further testing. The worker must attend the doctorshospital to allow for appropriate testing which will test for contamination. A worker who suffers a sharps injury should be provided counselling support if required. In the event that a worker is injured ensure that appropriate first aid is administered immediately encourage punctures or cuts to bleed wash liberally with soap and water andor dilute with hypochlorite solution if the eye or face is exposed to a splash or mucous membrane rinse gently with water The incident is reported and vaccination status checked as soon as possible appropriate medical treatment and tests such as antibody tests for HIV Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are conducted Mandatory counselling about the risk of contracting a blood-borne disease from exposure is conducted Every reasonable effort is made to ascertain the infectious status of the source. SA Health provides information on control of hazards related to skin penetration SA Health What to do if you find used syringes httpwww.sahealth.sa.gov.auwpswcmconnectPublicContentSAHealthInternet HealthtopicsHealthconditionspreventionandtreatmentDrugsWhattodoifyoufinduse dsyringes SA Health Managing a Needle Stick Injury httpwww.sahealth.sa.gov.auwpswcmconnect4da811804f662c63a407f674733d1f2bManaging aNeedlestickInjuryWalletCard-DASSA-Mar2013.pdfMODAJPERESCACHEID4da811804f6 62c63a407f674733d1f2b SA Health 3. Protecting Public Health in hairdressing body art and piercing httpwww.sahealth.sa.gov.auwpswcmconnectpubliccontentsahealthinternet protectingpublichealthhairdressingbodyartandpiercing 36 2.7.2 Sharps Management Where equipment is reused it must be cleaned and sterilised. The most effective method of sterilisation is the application of moist heat under pressure for a prescribed time and temperature. A steam steriliser autoclave is needed for this purpose. Wiping needlesspatulas with disinfectant before use does not sterilise the item. Ultraviolet UV cabinets DO NOT STERILISE equipment and other articles placed in them because the UV radiation does not penetrate to all surfaces. Some viruses are not particularly susceptible to UV radiation and these cabinets are not suitable storage receptacles because the UV rays damage combs and brushes and compromise sterile packaging. Disinfectant solutions commonly used by many hairdressers for combs scissors brushes etc. have been found to be ineffective. The routine disinfection of these implements by this means is not recommended. Disinfection does not achieve the same reduction in microbial contamination levels as sterilisation and must not be used for equipment that penetrates the skin. All equipment that penetrates the skin must be sterile. Note the above information has been referenced from Guideline on the Public Health Standards of Practice for Hairdressing. Guideline on the Public Health Standards of Practice for Hairdressing. Guidelines on the safe and hygienic practice of skin penetration CONTROL MEASURES Substitution Substitute reusable equipment with single-use disposable equipment e.g. needles spatulas emery boards make-up brushes razors hand towels. Redesign Install surfaces furniture and fittings that are made of non-absorbent materials that can be readily cleaned. Design the work area so that clean and contaminated instruments are kept separate from each other. Isolation Make sure all used sharps are placed in a clearly labelled rigid-walled puncture resistant container that meets Australian Standards immediately after use. Make sure all waste that is contaminated with blood or body substances is placed in a leak proof bag or container and sealed. Please refer to SA Health guidelines on page 35. 3. Protecting Public Health in hairdressing body art and piercing 37 Administrative controls Develop and implement procedures for cleaning disinfecting sterilising and storing reusable equipment managing blood and body substance spills managing accidental blood and body substance exposures and skin penetrating injuries safe disposal of contaminated waste including sharps this should comply with state or local council requirements cleaning and storing laundry Provide information and training for infection control practices and procedures. Provide Hepatitis B immunisation for workers at risk of exposure to blood and body substances particularly for workers performing skin penetrating procedures. Do not reuse equipment marked by the manufacturer as single use. Do not reuse equipment that has been contaminated with blood or body substances unless it has been cleaned and sterilised. Dispose of dispensed creams ointments and lotions and do not return them to the original containers. Do not reuse wax unless it has been decontaminated according to SA Health requirements. Treat all blood and body substances as potentially infectious and take standard precautions to prevent exposure e.g. wearing disposable gloves good hygiene practices safe handling of sharps. Ensure there is adequate hand washing facilities. Provide a number of sets of equipment to allow some equipment to be cleaned and disinfected or sterilised while others are in use. Follow the recommended dilutions and storage requirements for disinfectants and observe use-by dates. Personal protective equipment Wear disposable gloves for all contact with blood and body substances and when performing skin penetration procedures such as electrolysis skin extractions tattooing and ear and body piercing. Wear gloves when cleaning contaminated equipment. Make sure all abrasions cuts or lesions are covered by waterproof dressings. Wear eye andor face protection when performing a procedure such as cleaning contaminated equipment which may cause a splashing hazard. Use devices such as gloves and finger cots to protect nail technicians from abrasive injuries from files. Please refer to SA Health guidelines on page 35. 3. Protecting Public Health in hairdressing body art and piercing 38 2.8 Dermatitis Occupational Dermatology Research and Education Centre PH 03 9623 9402 httpwww.occderm.asn.au Dermatitis means inflammation of the skin caused by something that people touch. It usually affects the hands. There are 3 main types Irritant contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Contact urticarial Irritant contact dermatitis Continual wetting and drying of the skin as well as handling irritating substances will dry out the skin. This will occur more rapidly in people with a history of eczema even as a baby asthma or hay fever. Irritant contact dermatitis is common in apprentices junior and casual staff who often perform a lot of basin work. This condition occurs gradually and builds up over time following long periods of wet work and using shampoo other hair products and cleaning products. In the hairdressing and beauty industry common irritants are Water from washing hands and hair frequently and from handling wet hair Shampoo conditioner and styling products Bleach and perming solution Soaps and detergents Cleaning products Not drying hands properly Heat and sweating from wearing gloves for long periods of time 39 We are proud in providing Good Old Fashioned Service Great Pricing due to our exceptional Buying Power and we love to Advocate for Your Business if you ever need to make a claim. Call us now for a tailer made product to suit you and your business The Best of National Strength with Personal Service t 08 8300 0888 e insurance.sacowden.com.au f 08 8272 1228 Cowden Limited Group are Members of Mention this advert and we will give you a 10 discount when you proceed with your new insurance policy CowdenTHE INSURANCE BROKERS Allergic contact dermatitis Allergy can occur at any time in a hairdresser or beauty therapists career and often happens after irritant contact dermatitis has already damaged the skin. Allergy will cause the skin to be very itchy flake split crack and blister. The skin will flare-up some hours after contact with the particular substance as this type of allergy is delayed i.e. 4-24 hours after contact. It may take days or weeks to settle down again. It is diagnosed by patch testing at a specialised clinic. Once this condition develops there is no cure. Prevention is the key. In the Hair and Beauty industry common allergens are Hair colours permanent and semi-permanent Chemical restructuring solution Bleachpowder lighteners Acrylate chemicals used for artificial nails through absorption and inhaled as dust and vapours Depilatory waxes noting people allergic to sticking plaster may also be allergic to waxes. Contact urticaria This is a different type of allergy and occurs immediately within 10-30 minutes of the allergen touching the skin and settles down an hour or two after contact ceases. It is a reaction to specific proteins leading to hives on the skin itching and swelling and can also cause a runny nose sneezing or asthma. Contact urticaria can eventually develop into a life threatening condition. Causes of this type of allergy may include Bleach dust free bleach can lessen the likelihood of developing this type of allergy Natural rubber latex e.g. cheap powdered disposable latex gloves CONTROL MEASURES The following are methods that may be used to assist in the prevention of contact dermatitis. Gloves To prevent work-related contact dermatitis occurring or recurring it is imperative that hairdressers and beauty therapists use the right sort of gloves for the task being performed. However it is not uncommon for them to begin to wear gloves only when the skin on their hands is already damaged. It is important to wear gloves when shampooing rinsing out chemicals applying colours chemical restructuring solution and bleachpowder lightners applying chemicals for artificial nails handling wax if you have a history of problems with sticking plaster cleaning the salon therapy beds and equipment Suitable gloves may include disposable vinyl gloves or disposable polyethylene gloves both suitable for short periods only and not suitable for artificial nail work disposable nitrile gloves suitable for hairdressing and artificial nail work specifically designed hairdressers gloves are usually reusable and although made of latex they are of a high quality and rarely cause allergy reusable rubber or vinyl gloves can be used for cleaning the salon avoid using cheap powdered disposable latex gloves wearing cotton gloves underneath other gloves or using lined gloves can be useful to minimise sweating Information from glove manufacturers may help with deciding which type of glove is the best. 40 41 Moisturising feed the skin with the moisture it loses during a working day a barrier repair hand cream with no fragrances is best apply moisturising creams during breaks at work at the end of the day and before bed a less greasy moisturising lotion may be easier to use during the day this is often purchased in a pump-pack rub well into the hands and wrists not forgetting between the fingers Points to remember Change gloves between clients and at least hourly if still dealing with the same client to reduce sweating. Disposable gloves must be thrown away after each use they are not designed to be washed and re-used this poor work practice allows the chemicals to pass through the glove and onto the skin. Always keep the contaminated surface of the reusable gloves on the outside never turn them inside out. Take rings off at work. Chemicals detergents and water can get trapped underneath and may cause dermatitis to develop. Remember clients may be allergic to hair dye perm solution bleach or latex gloves. Always check with the client if they have any allergies. 42 Radiation Type Applications Potential Risks if Not Used properly Ultraviolet radiation UV LED lights used by nail technicians minimal UV risk burns due to product on skin during curing there is some hearsay in regards to elevated potential for skin cancer on the fingers Infra-red radiation infra-red heat lamps used in deep heat treatments infra-red hair dryers burns to skin and eye tissue Lasers Lasers beauty industry treatments such as skin exfoliation and hair removal skin damage including burns eye damage including blindness Light Emitting Diode LED beauty industry treatments such as hair removal and the stimulation of collagen eye damage burns and or blindness burns to skin Intense Pulse Light IPL beauty industry treatments such as photo-rejuvenation vascular treatments and hair removal eye damage burns and or blindness burns to skin hyperpigmentation Ultrasound beauty industry heat treatment and skin exfoliation overheating and burning of body tissue It is essential that the correct training is provided for use of these machines. Training can be provided by a machine supplier senior laser technicians in the business andor achieved through completing Vocational Graduate Certificate in Intense Pulsed Light and Laser Hair. 2.9 Radiation hazards WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 1 chapter 5 Part 1 division 7 regulation 223 Lasers Environmental Protection Authority EPA Website EPA Radiation Protection PH 08 8463 7826 Relevant Australian New Zealand Standards include ASNZS IEC 60825.142011 - Safety of laser products - A users guide ASNZS IEC 60825.12011 - Safety of laser products - Equipment classification and requirements ASNZS 31301995 - Approval and test specification - Beauty therapy equipment There are many types of beauty services that use low frequency non-ionising radiation from the infrared visible and lower ranges of the ultra violet light spectrum. The following are some examples where radiation is used in the workplace CONTROL MEASURES Install special cubicles to carry out UV and laser treatments to prevent accidental exposure to radiation. If this is not possible Provide workers with instruction and training on the health effects associated with radiation exposure and the safe use of equipment. Use equipment according to the manufacturers instructions. Display signs warning other persons that radiation-emitting equipment is in use. Do not exceed the recommended times for treatments. Ensure workers and clients wear goggles that meet Australian Standards at all times when UV and laser equipment is in use. For laser treatments remove or cover all items with smooth reflecting surfaces such as mirrors bottles polished metal and jewellery with matt black paper or cloth. Make sure the light in the laser work area is as bright as possible to construct the diameter of the pupil of the eye and reduce the risk of damage to the retina. 43 44 3 Workplace wellbeing and team management Workplace wellbeing is created by positive practices that influence the overall workplace health. This can be achieved through fostering supportive environments enhancing positive social conditions creating an environment free from discrimination Equal Opportunity principles building personal skills promoting healthy lifestyles providing a safe and healthy work environment Creating a harmonious healthy workplace has great benefits which include increased worker engagement team cohesiveness reduced absenteeism increased productivity and an improved business image. In short by creating a place of trust and respect workers will enjoy coming to work be more likely to listen to instructions and strive to do a good job. The following topics in this section explore the following areas in more detail Equal opportunities - creating a fair work place Hair2Heart teaching workers to take care of their mental health Providing Good Workplace Hygiene and House Keeping 45 3.1 Equal Opportunities - creating a fair workplace FAIR WORK ACT 2009 - C2013A00073 Equal Opportunity Commission in SA Equal Opportunity Act 1984 SA www.eoc.sa.gov.au Resource Fair Work Commission Website - creating fair workplaces Equal Opportunity means fairly treating staff and customers. Fair treatment is treating people as individuals without making judgments based on irrelevant personal characteristics creating a work environment free from discrimination harassment bullying and victimisation allowing all workers to work to their full potential making decisions based on merit. Discrimination occurs when someone is treated less favourably than others because they have a particular characteristic or belong to a particular group of people. Discrimination can be direct or indirect. Indirect discrimination is treatment which appears to be equal treatment but is unfair on certain people because of a particularly personal characteristic. To be unlawful it must also be unreasonable. In South Australia it is unlawful to discriminate people because of Age pregnancy Sex association with child Chosen gender caring responsibilities Race identity of spouse Disability religious appearance or dress Sexuality Marital or domestic partnership status The following types of discrimination are also covered by Commonwealth laws religion medical record social origin political opinion in employment only irrelevant criminal record in employment only trade union activity in employment only. If you think you have been discriminated against on one of these grounds you can lodge a complaint with the federal Australian Human Rights Commission. 46 What is victimization Victimisation is unfairly treating people for complaining or helping others to complain either within an organisation or to the Equal Opportunity Commission. Unlawful victimisation is unfair treatment for complaints about discrimination or sexual harassment. It is against the law because it punishes people for speaking out and stops people from complaining. What is workplace bullying It is possible for a person to be bullied and discriminated at the same time. Workplace bullying is defined as repeated and unreasonable behaviour directed towards a worker or a group of workers that creates a risk to health and safety. Repeated behaviour refers to the persistent nature of the behaviour and can involve a range of behaviours over time. Unreasonable behaviour means behaviour that a reasonable person having considered the circumstances would see as unreasonable including behaviour that is victimizing humiliating intimidating and threatening. 47 In the workplace a bully is a person who appears to have greater strength or power than others and uses that strength or power to coerce others. Bullying includes behaviours that intimidates degrades or humiliates a worker sometimes in front of others. Assault both physical and threatening is an extreme expression of bullying. If workplace bullying behaviour involves violence e.g. physical assault or the threat of physical assault it should be reported to the police. In other instances the behaviour may be subtle and not easily observed by other people. It may include verbal abuse behaviour which is intended to punish constant put-downs aggression and poorly managed conflicts of opinion or personality clashes. Inappropriate comments about personal appearance and persistent unreasonable criticism of work performance are also considered bullying. Social media is sometimes used as a form of bullying. All workers need to understand the legal implication of bullying online. Legitimate comment on performance or work related behaviour is not unfair treatment. Managers can give full and frank feedback in a constructive and sensitive way if it is carried out in a reasonable manner taking the particularly circumstances into account A single incident of unreasonable behaviour is not considered to be workplace bullying however it may have the potential to escalate and should not be ignored. Steps PCBUs and managers can take include Creating a Code of Conduct to establish expectations of appropriate behaviour. NOTE A policy to prevent workplace bullying may be a stand-alone policy or be incorporated into a broader code of conduct or work health safety policy. Establishing an equal opportunity policy to address all aspects of workplace discrimination and effectively communicating these to all members of staff including new staff through your induction program. Raising awareness in your workplace about what constitutes unacceptable behaviour which might be identified as bullying. Monitoring the workplace for indications of workplace bullying and investigating any issues identified records such as work-related injuries absenteeism productivity customer complaints grievances disciplinary actions etc. may assist with identification of an underlying problem. 48 Bullying can be psychological or physical harassment and it can affect women and men at all levels of employment. The bully can be anyone within the organisation including a manager a supervisor or a co-worker. Treating complaints seriously acting immediately and firmly to address workplace bullying incidents. Effectively responding to issues when they are raised can stop the situation happening again and reinforce to workers that workplace bullying is treated seriously and consistently with the organisation. Responses to workplace bullying will vary depending on the situation however workplace bullying allegations of a serious or complex nature should always be investigated. For more information on how to respond to workplace bullying refer to Guide for Preventing and Responding to Workplace Bullying Safe Work Australia 2013 Dealing with Workplace Bullying A Workers Guide Safe Work Australia 2013. Develop complaint procedures and complaint handling and investigation procedure. Provide clear job descriptions for specific roles in the company. Maintain records of all investigations. It is reasonable to make sure all workers are aware and abide by the code of conduct policies and procedure that relate to this. It is often a good idea to nominate a team member aside from the business owner as some workers may feel uncomfortable raising certain issues due to the PCBUworker business relationship. All workers need to be inducted and trained on the Code of Conduct specific workplace policies procedures on equal opportunity requirements and the prevention of workplace bullying. At any time you have the right to contact an external agency for advice or help. The South Australian Equal Opportunity Commission can be contacted via Telephone 08 8207 1977 Website www.eoc.sa.gov.au SA Equal Opportunity Fact sheets httpwww.eoc.wa.gov.aupublicationsfact-sheets SafeWork SA Workplace Bullying PH 1300 365 255 httpwww.safework.sa.gov.aushow_page.jspid5082.VNrqcLCUdHg Fair Work Commission Work Place Bullying PH 13 13 94 httpswww.fwc.gov.auresolving-issues-disputes-and-dismissalsworkplace-issues-disputesanti- bullying From 1 January 2014 a worker in a constitutionally covered business who reasonably believes that he or she has been bullied at work can apply to the Fair Work Commission for an order to stop the bullying. 49 The following are a few examples of where discrimination can occur in the Hair and Beauty industry 3.1.1 Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is sexual behaviour which makes people feel offended afraid or humiliated and in the circumstances it is reasonable to feel that way. Both men and women can sexually harass or be harassed. Sexual harassment is determined from the point of view of the person feeling harassed. It is how the behaviour is received not how it is intended that counts. Sexual harassment can be unwelcome touching or kissing comments or jokes leering or staring sexual pictures objects emails text messages or literature direct or implied propositions or requests for dates questions about sexual activity. Mutual attraction or friendship with consent is not sexual harassment. 3.1.2 Pregnancy Pregnant or potentially pregnant workers should be treated in a fair and equitable manner. Women who are pregnant or returning from maternity leave and workers with family responsibilities have rights under the Sex Discrimination Act. Women who are pregnant should be able to continue to work in the same way and under the same conditions as other workers unless there are valid medical or safety reasons. It is against the law to dismiss a woman because she is pregnant. Where necessary PCBUs should make all reasonable adjustments to the workplace to accommodate a pregnant worker. PCBUs need to discuss the issues with the pregnant worker to find solutions e.g. providing a chair to sit on. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Pregnancy Guidelines clarify many of the issues surrounding pregnancy and work. 50 3.2 Emotional Health Working and developing relationships with customers is a common joy for most of us who work in the Hair Beauty and Nail industry. With instinctive communication skills and empathy we naturally engage clients in discussions about their lives. Conversations will range from family relationships health and work covering both the good and the bad. In some cases clients may even choose to discuss very personal challenges such as depression grief relationship issues drugs and alcohol and domestic violence. Hearing this sort of information about clients hardship can be distressing especially when we dont know how to process or deal with the information. It may even cause us to feel mentally overwhelmed and stressed - after all its our job to make people feel better and if we cant help we may find this distressing. For this reasons it is important for us all to learn to manage our emotional health so that we can support our clients whilst not upsetting our own health and wellbeing. The best way for us to deal with a situation is to learn to put some emotional boundaries in place. Emotional boundaries will allow you to distinguish separating your emotions and responsibility from someone elses. Healthy boundaries prevent you from giving advice blaming or accepting blame. They protect you from feeling guilty for someone elses negative feelings or problems and taking others comments personally. Healthy emotional boundaries require clear internal boundaries knowing your feelings and your responsibilities to yourself and others. In additional to having good emotional boundaries you can pre-plan what advice and information you can provide. It is always best to suggest for your clients seek professional help with these matters. If youd like to find out more there are plenty of online resources that will provide advice on how to set healthy emotional boundaries. httpwww.positivelypositive.com20120629 how-to-create-healthy-boundaries 51 PCBUs As an PCBU its important to consider the emotional health of your workers. The nature of the industry and services means that the workers are going to be exposed to many situations where there is the potential for them to be impacted by client discussions. If not managed poor emotional boundaries in the workplace can even reduce staff productivity as staff can be distracted and unhappy which can create a negative working ethos. It may even lead to sick leave requests. To help your workers in the salon you can Raise awareness about good emotional boundaries Provide strategies for them to manage their own emotional health Provide strategies to deal with different customer circumstances Provide support and assistance as required and listen to workers concerns Provide information and resources about where workers can seek help if they feel emotionally distressed. This can be through an Employee Assistance Provider EAP or through the provision of information from organisations such as Beyond Blue Extra consideration should also be given to young hairdresser who perhaps havent developed enough life skills to know how to deal with the situation appropriately too. To get some more ideas about ways to implement health emotional management in your salon take a look at the Hair2Heart project below The Hair2Heart Project The Hair2Heart project was funded through SafeWork SAs OHSW Small Grants Program using funds designated for projects aimed at improving health and safety in South Australian workplaces. Funding was allocated to Southern Primary Health Noarlunga who administered the project. This innovative project engaged Hairdressers in an educative program that provided them with training and support to provide good health information to clients by referral. This provided necessary skills to take and resilience required to reduce workplace stress and burnout but also to provide appropriate responses and referral information for fellow workers and clients. This program empowered both PCBUs and workers to introduce practical strategies for overcoming the very real difficulties encountered by small business in addressing workplace health safety and welfare issues. 52 The implementation of the Hair2Heart project in conjunction with industry representation and support resulted in the following outcomes Design and delivery of a comprehensive mental healthwellbeing and communication skills training for PCBUs and workers working in the Hairdressing Industry The development and distribution of practical user-friendly wallet health information cards for Hairdressers and their clients Provision of strategies for PCBUs and workers in the Hairdressing Industry to protect themselves from stress and burn out in their work environment. Professional development for TAFE SA lecturers and Registered Training Organisations with the delivery of a unit for work designed to promote positive mental health among young people Inclusion of a module of work in the Australian Passport to Safety web-based workplace health and safety program for Year 10 students. The success of the project indicates that long-term sustainable outcomes in health safety and injury prevention can best be achieved through a collaborative agency approach there is a strong commitment on behalf of the Industry to implement practical strategies that introduce and maintain long-term safe work practices. Although the program is not running the resources and concept can be applied to all salons in the Hair Beauty and Nail industry. 3.3 Providing Good Workplace Hygiene House Keeping WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 3 Part 2 Division 2 Code of Practice Managing the Work Environment and Facilities By providing and maintaining a clean and healthy work environment you will encourage positive staff morale promote your business as professional place to work and visit reduce the risk within your workplace Hygiene Tips Ensure facilities are maintained in a safe hygienic condition with the provision of adequate cleaning procedures and resources. Ensure ablution facilities are of a suitable standard and maintained in a safe and healthy condition including that running water soap hand drying and feminine hygiene facilities are available and maintained in each block. Provide dining facilities of a suitable standard. Ensure bins are conveniently located and emptied regularly Provide facilities for cool storage of food. Please refer to SA Health guidelines on page 35. 3. Protecting Public Health in hairdressing body art and piercing. 53 Housekeeping Tips Keep floors clean. Keep entrances exits points and stairways clear of obstructions. Ensure no items are stored under fire stairs. Provide easy and safe access to fire fighting equipment. Provide adequate storage for all materials plant and equipment. Ensure adequate containers are provided for excess or waste materials including infectious waste etc.. Provide adequate routines for disposal of rubbish and unwanted items. Ensure work areas are well ventilated and adequately lit. Regularly inspect floors to make sure they are free from hair nail clippings etc. Promptly clean up any spilt oil chemicals talc or water. Avoid running electrical leads across the floor. Floor Surfaces Slipstripsfalls are responsible for 25 of injuries in the Hair and Beauty industry. Uneven or slippery floors can hinder smooth movement make floor surfaces unpredictable and increase the likelihood of slips trips and falls. Glossy surfaces are more prone to accidents especially with loose hair water or product-spills lying about. Textured industrial vinyl surfaces are often difficult to clean especially to remove hair and are unfriendly to trolleys usually meaning spills or tip-overs. The preferable floor surfaces include non-slip vinyl and carpet surfaces. Lighting Poor lighting can adversely affect the safety of tasks in the Hair and Beauty industry as it can contribute to accidents and injuries tired sore eyes headaches. Common lighting problems include too much or too little light. Poor lighting conditions cause glare and shadows which can force workers to use awkward body positions to perform work. To ensure the workspace is lit effectively maintain bulbs and tubes in a clean efficient state. Please refer to SA Health guidelines on page 35. 3. Protecting Public Health in hairdressing body art and piercing. 54 3.4 Security Remote working WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 3 Division 6 Section 48 Code of Practice Managing the Work Environment and Facilities People who work alone or who travel to different locations have an increased risk because they are isolated from the assistance of others because of the time location or nature of the work e.g. mobile makeup artist or masseuse hairdresser working on their own in a salon Isolated Work Consideration If a person works alone it important to ensure they have reliable communication systems e.g. a full charged mobile phone or personal duress alarm. Workers should have a plan in place to deal with equipment failure or a vehicle break down. Where possible avoid people working alone. Robbery and Armed Hold-Ups All workers should be protected in the workplace from any unnecessary risks during a robbery or armed hold-up. The following are a few things that can be done to reduce the risk during these events Install a wide reception desk so clients cannot reach over to the cash register drawer. Install a panic button linked to an alarm or a police station. Install a device to alert you to people entering the workplace e.g. mirrors alarm systems bell on the door. Make sure the reception desk is visible from all other parts of the salon. Make sure there is good visibility into the workplace. Make sure all potential access points outside the view of staff such as back door and windows are secure at all times. Only open the cash drawer when the customer is paying for a service or purchasing a product. Close the cash drawer before the product is packaged. Where practical lock the cash drawer and remove the key when not in use. Clear excess cash from the cash register frequently and randomly and keep as little money on the work premises as possible. In the event of an armed hold-up Do not make any sudden or quick movements. Do not attempt to use or answer the telephone. Obey any order exactly and quickly e.g. hand over the cash. Dont volunteer to do anything other than what they ask you to do. Dont attempt to delay the offenders departure. Dont shout or provoke the offender. 55 3.5 Fire prevention WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 4 Part 3 Division 3 Section 73 Code of Practice Managing the Work Environment and Facilities The purpose of these regulations is to ensure that the risk of accidental fire at a workplace is minimised. A person conducting a business or undertaking PCBU is responsible to ensure that they provide a work place free of potential fire causing hazards. Considerations in your workplace to minimise the risk of fire include may include the regular removal of waste materials and accumulated dust the handling and storage of flammable materials making sure all electrical equipment near flammable chemicals is intrinsically safe no spark no heat the appropriate safety signage displayed for any hazardous flammable products that could cause an explosion or burn quickly. Warning must comply with the appropriate requirements of Australian Standard 1319. avoiding using faulty electrical appliances e.g. hairdryers keeping all electrical equipment tested and tagged the reporting of all faulty electrical equipment switches or exposed wiring knowing where the fire exits and fire fighting equipment are located and how to use them know the evacuation assembly points and listen to the fire wardens for instruction 56 3.6 Emergency procedures WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 4 Part 3 Division 3 Section 74 Code of Practice Managing the Work Environment and Facilities pg. 26-27 There is potential for various emergencies to occur in the workplace which can include Fire or explosion Medical emergency e.g. heart attack Bomb threats Natural disaster e.g. flood Personal threat e.g. violent person Legally every work place is required to have a fire wardens and a first aid officers and ensure that all workers are trained in emergency procedures. This includes making everyone aware of The location of emergency exits Fire fighting equipment First aid kits Assembly areas Emergency contact numbers such as the following should also be displayed in a prominent place Police Ambulance Fire Brigade Local Hospital Emergency equipment needs to be inspected and maintained by specialist consultants in accordance with regulations e.g. Fire extinguishers and hose reels Fire and smoke alarms Emergency signage and lighting Emergency evacuation drills should occur at least once in a calendar year. 3.6.1 Example Emergency Procedures Salons are required to provide a written emergency plan with clear emergency procedures and these must be accessible to all workers. The following are examples of emergency situations that may occur. Fires Preventing fires is the first and best course of action. Workers are required to Report faulty electrical switches or exposed wiring. Avoid using faulty electrical appliances. Ensure all electrical equipment on premises is tested and tagged in accordance with statutory requirements. 57 Know where the fire exits and fire fighting equipment are located. Know the evacuation assembly points and listen to the fire wardens for instructions. If safe to do so close all doors and windows and extinguish the fire. Salons may require three types of extinguishers for electrical fires normal fires alcohol based fires. If you are unsure contact your fire extinguisher provider for further advice. Personal Threat In the event of a personal threat violent or threatening person workers are required to Note and report the person to a manager if safe to do so. If on your own use duress alarm If confronted obey instructions of the offender if safe to do so. Try to remain calm and do not respond aggressively. Observe personal characteristics of the offender. Call the police on 000. Record the information for the police. If possible and you are able to do so secure the door from the inside if the offender is outside and wait for the police. Bomb Threat In the event of a bomb threat workers are required to Report details to manager and warden Call the police on 000 Evacuate to the designated emergency assembly point Remain at assembly point to ensure everyone is accounted for and Assist police with details of the bomb threat. Burglary In the event of a burglary workers are required to Not touch anything Inform the relevant manager and call the police on 000 and Leave the area if concerned. Medical Emergency In the event of a medical emergency workers are required to Notify a first aid officer Immediately call an ambulance on 000 Assist with first aid procedures where required and Do not attempt to move the person unless they are in immediate danger. 58 3.7 First aid and training WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS 2012 Chapter 3 Part 2 Division 3 Section 42 Code of Practice First Aid in the Workplace www.worstaidtofirstaid.com By law every South Australian Business must be First Aid compliant. By doing so PCBUs will not be putting their employees and customers at risk. First aid is the immediate treatment or care given to a person suffering from an injury or illness until more advance care is provided or the person recovers. The persons responsible for providing first aid in your workplace is commonly referred to as a first aider and they are required to have completed an accredited first aid training course. Salons must provide adequate access to first aid facilities in the event of an injury or illness arising in the work place. The following are minimum standards to assist in the development of safe work practices A first aid kit is available and these kits are regularly stocked note the number of first aid kits provided is dependent on the number of workers. Kits must be kept in a prominent accessible location with well recognised signage. All workers need to be made aware of the kits location. Nominated first aiders must hold a current nationally accredited certificate in first aid and this should be updated every three years. Procedures for first aid are developed and workers are trained in these. Maintain records of any injuries on an incident report form at the time of injury or as soon as possible following the incident. For information contact St John - Telephone 1800 182 131 Red Cross - Telephone 08 8293 9200 59 3.8 Had an accident what to do httpwww.workcover.com The following will guide you apply first aid CPR if necessary help injured worker get medical assistance e.g. doctor you may need to phone for an ambulance DIAL 000 advise them victims condition and help is required always confirm message is understood prepare an incident form ensure all incident reports are tabled at the next health and safety committee meeting PCBUs are required to advise their WorkCover insurer the PCBU and worker will need to know the following how to return to work safely rights of the injured worker the role of the medical or rehabilitation provider the workers compensation claim process general tips to assist injured workers tips for improving workplace safety 60 Notes 61 i 4 Further Information Australian Standards www.standards.org.au PH 1800 035 822 Environment Protection Authority EPA www.epa.sa.gov.au PH 1800 623 445 EPA Radiation Protection PH 08 8463 7826 Equal Opportunity Commission SA PH 08 82071977 www.eoc.sa.gov.au FairWork Ombudsman www.fairwork.gov.au 13 13 94 Hair Beauty Industry Association of South Australia Inc. www.hairandbeautysa.com.au PH 08 8271 1355 Hair Co-op www.haircoop.com.au PH 1800 635 545 Legislation SA www.legislation.sa.gov.au PH 08 8207 1000 Occupational Dermatology Research and Education Centre www.occderm.asn.au PH 03 9623 9402 Office of the Employee Ombudsman www.employeeombudsman.sa.gov.au PH 08 8207 1970 SafeWork SA PH 1300 365 255 www.safework.sa.gov.au Safe Work Australia www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au PH 08 1300 551 832 SA Health www.sahealth.sa.gov.au PH 08 8226 6000 Service Skills SA www.serviceskillssa.com.au PH 08 8362 6255 Shop Distributive and Allied Employees Association SDA Union www.sda.com.au PH 1800 806 398 South Australian Industrial Relations Commission www.industrialcourt.sa.gov.au PH 08 8207 0999 Working Womens Centre SA Inc. www.wwc.org.au PH 1800 652 697 Workcover www.workcover.com PH 13 18 55 Hair2Heart www.youtube.comwatchv3vyq_dRw0Fk Phone 08 8271 1355 Email infohairandbeautysa.com.au Visiting Office Hours Monday to Thursday 9AM - 3PM at Suite 3198 Greenhill Rd EASTWOOD SA 5063 Bookings Esstential Alternative Fax 08 8271 1366 www.hairandbeautysa.com.au